Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a virus that infects cells in the immune system. If it’s not treated with antiretroviral drugs, the immune system can become severely weakened.
An important way that HIV is transmitted is through sex, particularly during vaginal or anal sex. Anal sex has a higher risk of transmitting the virus due to the rectum’s thin lining, which can tear easily during sex.
Keep reading to learn more about the different types of condoms and how to use them to prevent contracting HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs).
Condoms can help prevent transmission of HIV and other STIs. They do this because they form a barrier that viruses and bacteria cannot effectively pass through.
According to the
However, results from lab tests can be different from what’s found in daily life.
This is because it’s possible that people may not use condoms consistently or correctly during sex.
Data collected by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) from both lab and epidemiological studies estimates that, when used consistently and correctly, condoms lower the risk of HIV transmission by about
Let’s examine what some of the research says.
Men who have sex with men
A 2018 paper analyzed the findings of four studies that looked at self-reported condom use in men who have sex with men (MSM). Researchers reported the effectiveness of condoms per number of HIV-positive sexual partners.
It was found that people who reported that they always used condoms with each sexual partner reduced their odds of contracting HIV by 91 percent.
Meanwhile, people who reported never or only sometimes using condoms with each sexual partner increased their odds of contracting HIV by 83 percent.
The researchers found that condoms could reduce the transmission of HIV to an HIV-negative partner by more than 70 percent when used consistently.
They also found that the protective effect provided by the condom was higher when the male partner was living with HIV.
Condoms and antiretroviral therapy
HIV is treated with antiretroviral drugs. These are medications that are taken daily to help prevent the virus from replicating and further weakening the immune system.
During 2 years of follow-up with 58,000 reported condomless sex acts, no HIV transmission from HIV-positive partners to HIV-negative partners was seen.
This ties into the concept of undetectable = untransmissible (U=U). Taking antiretroviral drugs daily as prescribed can reduce viral load to undetectable levels in
A big part of a condom’s effectiveness at preventing HIV has to do with using it correctly. Now let’s examine how to put on and remove a condom if you have a penis.
To put on a condom
Follow the steps below to put on a condom:
- Place the condom onto the tip of the erect penis so that the reservoir tip faces up. If the penis is uncircumcised, be sure to pull back the foreskin first.
- Gently pinch the reservoir tip at the end of the condom to help remove any air bubbles.
- Proceed to roll the condom all the way down to the base of the penis.
To remove a condom
After sex, a condom must be removed. Follow the steps below to properly remove a condom:
- While holding the condom at its base, gently withdraw the penis before it becomes soft.
- Carefully remove the condom from the penis.
- Throw the condom away. It may be helpful to tie it closed or wrap it up in a tissue so that semen won’t spill out of it.
Condoms can come in a variety of sizes, shapes, and textures. They can also be made from different materials. Below, we’ll explore a few of the important things to know about condoms.
Condoms come in different sizes
There are a variety of different condom sizes available. Condom sizes are typically measured in terms of length and width.
Selecting a condom that fits is very important. A poorly fitting condom can lead to breakage or slippage. It can also affect the amount of pleasure experienced during sex.
Condoms are made from different materials
It’s possible to purchase condoms made from a variety of different materials, including latex and synthetic materials, like polyurethane and polyisoprene.
Condoms can break
When a condom breaks, its ability to prevent HIV, other STIs, or pregnancy is compromised.
- Stop having sex and put on a new condom.
- Consider getting tested for HIV and other STIs.
- Ask a healthcare professional about getting post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) if HIV exposure is a concern.
- Seek access to emergency contraception, if necessary.
There are also many things that can help prevent a condom from breaking:
- Buy condoms that fit. Make sure a condom fits before using it. Condom sizing can vary by manufacturer, so be sure to read the package labeling before purchasing.
- Store condoms properly. Try to store condoms in a location that’s cool and dry. Avoid putting them in a wallet or purse, because exposure to heat or friction may damage them.
- Note expiration dates. An older condom may be more likely to break. Additionally, all condoms come with an expiration date. Regularly replace any condoms that have passed their expiration date.
- Gently open the condom. Use your fingers to carefully remove a condom from its packaging. Using your teeth or scissors can damage it.
- Check for damage. It’s possible that some condoms may be damaged. Before using a condom, check it for any holes, tears, or other defects.
Put the condom on correctly. Always be sure to put the condom on correctly. Not doing so can decrease its effectiveness. Some common mistakes that can happen are:
- removing a condom too early or putting on a condom too late
- unrolling the condom before putting it on
- not removing air from the reservoir tip
- putting on a condom inside out
- Don’t double up. Never use two condoms together at the same time. This can cause friction that can lead to breakage.
- Always use lube. Use a water- or silicone-based lubricant during sex. Avoid using oil-based lubricants with latex condoms as they can cause the latex to break down.
- Never reuse a condom. Always dispose of condoms promptly after sex.